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By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.

Historical Egypt was once one of many longest-lasting civilizations the realm has ever identified. This publication explores Egypt's extensive political, monetary, social, and cultural advancements, from the strong civilization of the earlier to the various cultural and political panorama, masking nearly 6,000 years of heritage.

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He gained control of all Egypt and founded the Thirtieth Dynasty. This dynasty is remembered for its naturalistic portraiture, statuary, and new temples, most notably the Philae Temple near Aswan. E. under Artaxerxes III. E. when Alexander the Great, hailed by the Egyptians as their savior from Persian domination, conquered the country. Alexander the Great (r. ) was a brave fighter and a master strategist who became king of Macedonia when he was 20. By 331, after a series of rapid military successes, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River and from the Danube to the Nile, including the entire Persian Empire.

The later Roman emperors and the patriarch of Constantinople required Egyptians to support Orthodox Christianity. As a consequence Egypt developed parallel Orthodox and Coptic hierarchies and churches during the fifth and sixth centuries, posing a severe financial burden on the people and alienating them from their Roman rulers. Perhaps as a sign of passive resistance to foreign control, one of Egypt’s main contributions to Christianity was monasticism. Starting with St. Antony (252–356), devout Christians became hermits or founded monasteries in the Egyptian desert, living a communal life devoted mainly to study and prayer remote from the centers of wealth and power.

In 313, when Constantine issued his Edict of Milan, which granted freedom of worship throughout the Roman Empire, persecution ended and Christianity flourished. The Coptic Challenge to Rome Unfortunately, however, Egypt became the cockpit for the theological disputes and chasms that divided Christendom. The disputes began with an Alexandrian priest named Arius who taught that Jesus Christ, though divinely sired and inspired, ranked lower than God the Father. Arian views spread widely throughout North Africa and later Europe.

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