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Additional resources for A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar: Theoretical and Practical
Tact with certain nitrogenous or~anic substances, called yeasts, or leaven. Sugars are widely diffused through the vegetable kingdom; and three principal species have been distinguished by chemists:1. Cane sugar. 2. Grape sugar. 3. Uncrystallizable fruit sugar. The first species is perfectly well known, while the others are less so, and when their properties are more accurately ascertained they will probably be subdivided. A crystallizable substance, sugar of milk, is also found in the milk of animals, and should be classed among the sugars.
After repose, the water and slimes are separated as before, the starch strained in linen bags', and dried by exposure to the sun or in a warm room. Wheat contains from 56 to 76 per cent. of starch; corn from 70 to 75, potatoes from 15 to 30, rice from 80 to 85 per cent. Starch plays a very important part in the fabrication of vinegar from grains. DEXTRIN, C11lH1oQIO. As has already been stated, starch, when treated for some time with water containing some hundredths of a mineral acid, sulphuric for instance, is soon completely dissolved, being first converted into a substance closely resembling gum-arabic, and then, if the ebullition be ELEHENTARY PRINCIPLES.
In contact with yeast, it ferments directly, producing alcohol and carbonic acid. By boiling cane sugar with diluted acid, it is readily converted into this second species. Cane sug~r always undergoes this first transformation under the influence of yeast before that of fermentation, properly so called, that is to say, before being converted into alcohol and carbonic acid. Its chemical composition corresponds to the formula CllIH12012. _If a syrupy solution of fruit sugar is allowed to rest for some time, it deposits small crystalline grains of a sugary substance which has been improperly called grape sugar.