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Supplying a severe account of the cave in of the FTAA negotiations and adjustments to strength family members within the Americas, this publication argues that the cave in used to be rooted in a "crisis of authority" brought on by way of starting to be competition within the Americas to US management and the neo-liberal reforms that have been promoted by way of Washington because the Nineteen Eighties.
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Extra info for A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas
With respect to counterhegemony, although Gramsci did not make reference to it explicitly, Cox explains that it is implied within his concept of a war of position. The war of position takes place within civil society in a context where there is a prevailing hegemony that is opposed to the interests of the class employing such a strategy. ”10 These alternative institutions and intellectual resources Gramsci, Hegemony, and Global Governance 31 contribute to the working class taking on a “leadership” position visà-vis other subordinate classes so as to be in a better position to take on dominant classes.
This indeterminacy is manifested by hegemony being rooted in and affected by economic activity while not being determined by it. A dominant class may be positioned materially to become hegemonic, but a hegemonic project must countenance political “conflict and confrontation” situated within a social formation’s civil society and political society. ”28 This means that the hegemony is never static and must continually be renewed to adjust to the fluidity of social relations. 30 Further, the rootedness of hegemony in materiality is responsible, in part, for this fluidity by making it subject to shifts and crises located in a social formation’s structure, 38 A History of the FTAA as well as imposing limits on its ability to extend and deepen its universality.
This history begins with the end of the Cold War as an important conjuncture in inter-American relations, which prepared the ground for the launching of the FTAA. Specifically, it puts into context the emerging consensus concerning economic liberalization and liberal democracy in the hemisphere. It proceeds to an analysis of the establishment of the negotiation structure as a process headed by the United States and mediated by Brazil. It concludes with an examination of the agreement’s history with a focus on the ministerial meetings and Summit of the Americas, which constituted the major events of the FTAA’s negotiation calendar.