By Ive Marx
Social scientists, politicians, and economists have lately been considering the concept the complicated welfare states of Europe face a “New Social Question.” The middle suggestion is that the transition from an commercial to a postindustrial surroundings has introduced with it a complete new set of social dangers, constraints, and trade-offs, which necessitate radical recalibration of social safety structures. a brand new Social query? analyzes that question extensive, with specific awareness to the matter of source of revenue security and the problems dealing with Bismarckian welfare states. will probably be beneficial analyzing for somebody drawn to figuring out the way forward for ecu social policy.About the AuthorIve Marx is learn fellow on the Centre for Social coverage on the college of Antwerp, Belgium. [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]
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Additional info for A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era
One can see quite clearly, then, how an essentially socio-demographic trend, in the context of a benefit policy that has moved towards improved protection has contributed to the increase in non-employment among low-skilled single mothers. 6 Some Direct Evidence that the Capacity for Economic Self-Reliance Has Declined As I have tried to show, the problem is how to interpret pre-transfer poverty trends. The convenient and indeed common interpretation is that the pre-transfer poverty rate reflects the extent of poverty that would prevail in absence of direct redistribution.
Social insurance that predominantly redistributes horizontally is generally considered not to carry an economic welfare cost. On the contrary, some economic models predict that, under plausible circumstances, a substantial welfare gain will be achieved (Barr 2001). , vertical), structural redistribution from people with a high earnings potential to individuals whose earning potential is low. This is generally thought to give rise to potential moral hazard problems and associated economic welfare costs (Barr 1998).
First, there was often a geographic mismatch. Many services cater locally and are thus spread relatively uniformly across the country. Secondly, there was a skills mismatch; services generally required different and usually higher skills. The result was that service unemployment was unable to absorb many of those who lost their jobs in the industrial sector. The threat of significant poverty rises was very real. Hence the vast expansion of early retirement schemes and the like. Nevertheless, the growth in dependency levels rapidly rose far and above what had been foreseen or implicitly planned – as the literature from the period demonstrates.