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By David Grummitt

The Wars of the Roses (c. 1450-85) are well known as an infamously savage and tangled slice of English background. A bloody thirty-year fight among the dynastic homes of Lancaster and York, they embraced localized vendetta (such because the sour northern feud among the Percies and Nevilles) in addition to the formal conflict of royalist and insurgent armies at St Albans, Ludford Bridge, Mortimer's go, Towton, Tewkesbury and eventually Bosworth, whilst the usurping Yorkist king Richard was once beaten through Henry Tudor. strong personalities dominate the interval: the charismatic and enigmatic Richard III, immortalized by means of Shakespeare; the slippery Warwick, "the kingmaker," who eventually over-reached ambition to be slash on the conflict of Barnet; and guileful girls like Elizabeth Woodville and Margaret of Anjou, who for a time governed the dominion in her husband's stead. David Grummitt areas the violent occasions of this advanced time within the wider context of fifteenth-century kingship and the advance of English political tradition. by no means wasting sight of the nerve-racking impression of battle at the lives of these who both fought in or have been touched through conflict, this appealing new background will make compelling studying for college students of the overdue medieval interval and Tudor England, in addition to for basic readers.

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In 1437 leading nobles were granted the stewardship of various parts of the Duchy of Lancaster, an unusual move that may testify to their acceptance of the king’s shortcomings. Moreover, during the 1440s the council proved remarkably successful in dealing with outbreaks of disorder and feuds between magnates. The violent dispute in Bedfordshire, for example, between Lord Grey of Ruthin and Lord Fanhope was settled by the council’s arbitration in 1439; in 1443 the long-running feud between the senior and junior branches of the Neville family came to end; and in the same year the quarrel between Lord Bonville and the Earl of Devon (both of whom had been granted the stewardship of the Duchy of Cornwall by the king) was temporarily quietened by the council’s intervention.

1482 Humphrey d. 1447 Duke o f Gloucester John d. 1435 Duke of Bedford Thomas d . 1421 Duke o f Clarence - = Alfonso V d. 1481 King o f Portugal Henry Holland d. 1475 Duke of Exeter John Holland d . 1447 Duke o f Exeter Edmund d. 1402 Duke o f York Edmund Beaufort d. 1455 Duke o f Somerset HENRY VII d. 1509 = EDWARD V dep. 1483 RICHARD II d. 1485 C ecily Neville d . 1495 Anne Mortimer EDWARD IV d. 1483 dep. 1470, rest. 1471 Richard d. 1460 Duke o f York M argaret Beaufort Henry Beaufort Edmund Beaufort d.

October: at the Westminster parliament Richard, Duke of York, makes his formal claim to the throne. He is recognised as Henry VI’s heir. 30 December: York, Salisbury and York’s son, the Earl of Rutland, killed by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield. 2–3 February: victory of Edward, Earl of March, over Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross. 17 February: the Earl of Warwick defeated by Margaret of Anjou’s army at the second Battle of St Albans. Margaret refused entry into London.

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