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By Kathryn A. Bard

An advent to the Archaeology of historic Egypt is a entire evaluate of Egyptian archaeology skillfully geared up to lead the reader from Egypt’s prehistoric previous during the pharaonic dynasties and the Greco-Roman interval. presents an remarkable advent to the archaeology of historical Egypt and its tradition, monuments, and civilization fantastically illustrated with over a hundred and twenty colour and black and white illustrations, together with artifacts, maps, and location and construction plans comprises specified sections on such subject matters of perennial curiosity as construction the pyramids at Giza, mummification, and decoding hieroglyphs equipped into eleven chapters, masking: the heritage of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric and pharaonic chronology and the traditional Egyptian language; geography, assets, and atmosphere; and 7 chapters prepared chronologically and dedicated to particular archaeological websites and facts comprises dialogue of recent excavations in Egypt, connecting fresh paintings with the result of initiatives spanning the overdue 19th and 20th centuries

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Over several field seasons a huge area of ca. 12,000 square meters was cleared of 4,500 years worth of accumulated sand and debris. The cleared areas were then surveyed and mapped for archaeological remains, and excavated. What emerged is the “Lost City,” a settlement consisting of a huge 4th-Dynasty production facility, with long narrow galleries. Evidence was found of paved streets, a large columned hall, a copper workshop, workers’ housing, many storerooms, and state bakeries to feed all the workers.

Hans Polotsky’s 1944 study of Coptic syntax has also had major implications for the study of Egyptian. Work on understanding the Egyptian language and the meanings of ancient texts and words continues to be a very lively area of Egyptology. 7 Use of Texts in Egyptian Archaeology Texts greatly expand our knowledge of ancient Egypt, but they do not give a full view of the culture. Except for the king, high officials, and other persons of high status, socio-economic information about the majority of Egyptians is generally absent ITTC02 1/25/07 2:54 PM Page 35 Hieroglyphs, Language, and Pharaonic Chronology from texts.

Semitic languages spoken today include Arabic and Hebrew, as well as several languages of central and northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. Other branches of the Afro-Asiatic language family include Cushitic, Berber, Chadic, and Omotic. These names relate to peoples and regions in Africa where these languages are spoken. Berber and Cushitic are geographically closest to Egypt. One of the Cushitic languages is Beja, which is spoken by nomadic peoples in the Eastern Desert, and has some close analogies to Egyptian.

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